Longitudinal Study II (LSII)
Period of research 2010/11 to 2012/13 (3 years)
Sample 421 year 1 undergraduate (UG) students (2010/11 3Y-cohort) were recruited in Fall 2010 by using a random sampling stratified by school affiliation. About 14% of participants dropped out throughout the study.
Response mode Voluntary with incentive for students' participation
Period of data collection Two in-class data collections were conducted in Fall 2010 and Spring 2013 and they served as pre-test and post-test, respectively. Additional online data collections were held at the end of Fall and Spring term each year. A few focus group discussion sessions were conducted at the end of Winter and Spring term in each academic year, with the exception of Spring 2013.
Enquiry research.study@ust.hk
Description The effect of assessment on students' learning outcomes has been widely discussed in the higher education research literature (Gibbs and Simpson 2004-05, Biggs and Tang 2007). Research in educational psychology (Pintrich 2003, Elliot & McGregor 2001, Urdan 2004) and higher education (Richardson 2000, Kember and Leung 2006, Cano 2005) showed that there are also other factors that will affect students' approach to learning and hence the quality of their learning. These include perceived workload and competitiveness, motivation to study (intrinsic and extrinsic goals, academic self-efficacy, academic task values, control beliefs in academic performance), conception of learning and epistemological beliefs.

LSII was set out to examine how students were being assessed in their UG programs and the direct and indirect effect of assessment on students' learning behaviors and outcomes. The inclusion of the various factors in the study allowed us to acquire a more in-depth and thorough understanding of how the various factors interact to shape students' learning behaviors and outcomes.

A mixed method approach was adopted in this study, including both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The former helped us to understand the relative importance of the different factors in shaping students' learning behaviors and outcomes, and the latter improved our understanding on the processes through which these different factors interacted.
Instruments used in the study The following instruments were adopted in the study:
  • Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire - Revised edition (AGQ) by Elliot and McGregor (2001)
  • Assessment Experience Questionnaire (AEQ) by Gibbs and Simpson (2003)
  • Assessment Method Questionnaire (AMQ) by research team
  • California Critical Thinking Skill Test (CCTST) by Insight Assessment
  • Conception of Learning Questionnaire (CLQ) by Richardson (2000)
  • Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) by research team
  • Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ) by Chan and Elliot (2004)
  • First Year Experience Survey (FYES) (2011)
  • Information Literacy Test (ILT) by Madison Assessment
  • Intake Survey (2010)
  • Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia and McKeachie (1993)
  • Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS) by National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs (NCLP)
  • Student Engagement and Satisfaction Questionnaire Survey (SESQ) (2013)
    Local version
    Non-local version
  • Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001)
  • Biggs, J., Kember, D. & Leung, Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor study process questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71,133-149.
  • Biggs, J. and Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does.Open University Press.
  • Cano F. (2005) Epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning: their change through secondary school and their influence on academic performance. British Journal Educational Psychology,75(2) 203-21.
  • Chan, K.W., & Elliott, R.G. (2004). Relational analysis of personal epistemology and conceptions about teaching and learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20,817-831.
  • Elliot, A. J., and McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,80(3) 501-519.
  • Gibbs, G. & Simpson, C. (2003 September). Measuring the response of students to assessment: the Assessment Experience Questionnaire. The 11th Improving Student Learning Symposium, Leicestershire, UK.
  • Kember and Leung (2006). Characterising a teaching and learning environment conducive to making demands on students while not making their workload excessive. Studies in Higher Education31(2) 185-198
  • Pintrich, R. P., Smith D. A. F., Garcia, T. & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53,801-813
  • Printrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4) 667-686.
  • Richardson, J. T. E. (2000) Researching student learning - approaches to studying in campus-based and distance education.SRHE and Open University Press.
  • Urdan, T. (2004). Predictors of academic self-handicapping and achievement: examining achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and culture. Journal of Educational Psychology,96 (2), 251-264.